Amazon also called Amazon jungle, Amazon jungle, Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Rain Forest or Hileia) is a wet latifoliada forest that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America. This basin encompasses seven million square kilometers, of which five and a half million square kilometres are covered by tropical forest. This region includes territories belonging to nine Nations.
Most of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the forest, followed by Peru with 13% and with minor amounts in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and France (French Guiana). States or departments in four Nations have Amazon’s name for it. The Amazon represents over half of the remaining rainforests on the planet and comprises the largest biodiversity in a rain forest in the world. Is one of the six major Brazilian biomes.
In Brazil, for the purposes of Government and economy, the Amazon is a delimited area called “Legal Amazon” set from the creation of the supervision of the development of the Amazon (SUDAM) in 1966. Is also called the Amazon biome in Brazil, 49.29% of the territory and spans three (North, Northeast and Midwest) of the five regional divisions of the country, being the largest terrestrial biome of the country. An area of six million hectares in the center of its watershed, including the Jaú National Park, was considered by the United Nations Educational, scientific and Cultural Organization in 2000 (with extension in 2003), a world heritage site.
The Amazon rainforest has been preselected in 2008 as a candidate for one of the new 7 Wonders of nature by the Seven Wonders of the modern world. In February 2009, the Amazon was ranked first in the group. And, the category for forests, national parks and nature reserves.
After the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, the subsequent extinction of the dinosaurs and the more humid climate allowed the tropical forest spread across the continent. Between 65-34 million years ago, the forest stretched South of latitude 45 s. climatic Fluctuations during the last 34 million years have allowed savanna regions expand to the tropics. During the Oligocene period, for example, the rainforest through the relatively narrow range which was mostly above latitude 15° N. Expanded again during the Middle Miocene, and then took a training in most of the interior in the last glacial maximum. 6 However, Woods still managed to thrive during these glacial periods, allowing the survival and the development of a wide diversity of species.
During middle Miocene, the Amazon drainage basin was divided along the middle of the continent by the Purus arch. The water on the eastern side flowed to the Atlantic, while the West water flowed toward the Pacific through the Amazon basin. With the growth of the Andes, however, a large basin was created in a closed Lake, now known as the Solimões basin. Within the last 5-10 million years ago, this accumulation of water broke through the Purus arch, joining in a single flow eastward from the Atlantic. 8 9
There is evidence that there have been significant changes in the vegetation of the Amazon rainforest over the past year 21000 through the last Glacial maximum and the subsequent deglaciação. Analysis of paleolagos sediment deposits of the Amazon basin indicate that the precipitation in the basin during the UMG was smaller than the current one and that was almost certainly associated with moist tropical vegetation cover reduced the basin. There is no debate, 10 However, on how extensive was this reduction. Some scientists argue that the rainforest was reduced to small and isolated refugia separated by open forest and pastures; 11 other scientists argue that the rainforest remained largely intact, but very stretched much less to the North, South and East than is seen today. 12 this debate has proved difficult to resolve because the limitations in the rainforest working practices mean that the data sample is biased according to the distance of the Center of the Amazon basin and both explanations are reasonably well supported by the available data.
Tropical moist forests are biomes very biodiverse tropical forests and of America are consistently more biodiversas than the rainforests of Africa and Asia. As the largest area of tropical forest in America, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. One in ten known species in the world live in the Amazon rainforest. This is the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world.
The region is home to about 2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of plants, and some 2000 birds and mammals. So far, at least 40 000 species of plants, fish, 1 294 3000 birds, 427 mammals, 428 amphibians, and 378 reptiles have been scientifically classified in the region. 27 one in five of all the birds in the world live in the rainforests of the Amazon. Scientists have described between 128 843 and 96 660 species of invertebrates only in Brazil.
The diversity of plant species is the highest on Earth, with some experts estimating that one square kilometer may contain over 1000 Amazon types of trees and thousands of species of other higher plants. According to a 2001 study, a quarter of a square kilometer of Ecuadorian forest supports more than 1 100 species of trees.
The Amazon River is a large river which rises in the Andes mountains, at Lake Lauricocha in Peru or Lauri and flows into the Atlantic Ocean near the island of marajo in Brazil. Along its course it receives the names Tunguragua, Apurímac, Marañón, Ucayali, Amazonas (from the junction of the river Marañon and Ucayali in Peru), Solimões and Amazon again (from the junction of the rivers Solimões and black, in Brazil). For a long time, believed to be the Amazon the raging river in the world and the second in length .35 however recent research the point as well as the longest river in the world 35 36 is the River with the largest drainage basin in the world, surpassing the 7 million square kilometres, most of them of tropical jungle.
One of the last great tropical reserves on the planet, the Amazon faces an accelerated degradation process for extraction of the product. Agropecuária comes in tow, occupying vast tracts of land under the pretext that the barn in the world is there. But the production model, in General, is ancient and sprawls sideways, advancing on the forests and leaving huge areas neglected.
Still, the agribusiness sector. In Congress, lobbying for changes in environmental legislation is strong. The goal is that more forest areas give rise to the production, mainly of cattle and soy. The hunger for development gave the country the third position among the largest exporters of agricultural products. But the credit of these figures have passed away from the local population.
The promises of development for the Amazon also spread by rivers, in the form of large dams, and the provinces minerals, in the form of camp. But the economic model chosen for the region leaves out the two key elements in the greatness of the Amazon: the environment and people
Various legends related to Amazon. The Eldorado, a town whose buildings would be all made of solid gold and whose treasures exist in unimaginable quantities, and the Lake Parima (supposedly the fountain of youth). Probably these two legends refer to the actual existence of the Lake Amaçu, which had a small island covered in micaceous schist, a material that produces strong glow when illuminated by sunlight and that produced the illusion of wealth to Europeans